Research Library

CJC's Research Library

The Community Justice Center’s work is research and data-driven. Below you will find resources from our research library demonstrating both the need for programs like ours as well as their impact. You can also use the search bar to find resources on certain topics or by specific authors. 

COSA Research

Bonar-Kidd, K.K. (2010)

Sexual offender laws and prevention of sexual violence or recidivism. American Journal of Public Health

For years, legislators have put laws in place aimed at reducing recidivism amongst sexual offenders. However, evidence on the effectiveness of these laws suggests that they may not prevent recidivism or sexual violence and result in more harm than good.


de Vries Robbé, M., Mann, R. E., Maruna, S., & Thornton, D (2015)

An exploration of protective factors supporting desistance from sexual offending

This article considers factors that support or assist desistance from sexual offending in those who have previously offended. Current risk assessment tools for sexual offending focus almost exclusively on assessing factors that raise the risk for offending. The aim of this study was to review the available literature on protective factors supporting desistance from sexual offending


Fox, K. J. (2014)

Restoring the social: offender reintegration in a risky world

How to manage and reintegrate offenders released from prison is a vexing problem for governments. The challenge of reintegration has forced a pendulum shift in corrections toward a more social-psychological understanding of the nature of offender release, after decades of purely psychological paradigm dominance. This article explains how reentry problems and practice encompass the shift in a context of a risk-centric and averse public.


Huebner, B. M., Pleggenkuhle, B., & Kras, K. R. (2020)

Access to Health Care and Treatment Among Individuals Convicted of Sexual Offenses Paroled to Urban and Rural Communities

Returning from prison to the community is rife with challenges. For individuals with health care, mental health, or substance abuse treatment needs, the reentry period can be especially vulnerable. Furthermore, these services are not evenly distributed across communities. This study explores barriers to health care and treatment among individuals convicted of sexual offenses who are returning from prison to urban and rural communities. 


Kras, K. R. (2019)

Can social support overcome the individual and structural challenges of being a sex offender? Assessing the social support-recidivism link

Social support is important for individual’s successful reentry; however, little is known about how it operates or is influenced by individual and structural factors. Understanding how social support matters for individuals convicted of a sex offense is especially important as they may have a different reentry experience due to the nature of their crime and post-conviction restrictions. This study examines the nature and effects of instrumental and expressive social support from family, friends, intimate partners, and parole officers on recidivism for a sample of men convicted of sex offenses using mixed methods.


Ward, T., Hudson, S. M., Johnston, L., & Marshall, W. L. (1997)

Cognitive distortions in sex offenders: An integrative review

Clinicians and researchers have noted that maladaptive beliefs and distorted thinking play an important role in facilitating or justifying sexual offenses. There have been a number of attempts to describe the nature of these beliefs and to develop ways of measuring them, but in the absence of any integrating theory. We suggest that an understanding of the cognitive processes underlying the initiation, maintenance, and justification of sexual offending is a vital prerequisite to the development of successful treatment programs. 


California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation

Recidivism Report for Offenders Released From the California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation in Fiscal Year 2015-2016

An in-depth look at conviction rates, recidivism rates and causes, offender outcomes, and factors affecting the aforementioned issues in California. 


Brown, K., Spencer, J., & Deakin, J. (2007)

The reintegration of sex offenders: Barriers and opportunities for employment. The Howard Journal of Criminal Justice

The process of reintegration of offenders after release from prison, or during a community sentence, is a key aim of criminal justice policy. This article provides details from recent research that investigated the barriers and opportunities to employment for sex offenders.


Duwe, G. (2018)

Can circles of support and accountability (CoSA) significantly reduce sexual recidivism? Results from a randomized controlled trial in Minnesota

This study evaluates the effectiveness of Minnesota Circles of Support and Accountability (MnCOSA), a sex offender reentry program implemented by the Minnesota Department of Corrections in 2008. Methods Using a randomized controlled trial, this study compares recidivism and cost–benefit outcomes among sex offenders in the MnCOSA (N = 50) and control groups (N = 50). 


Jeffries, Ginger (2020)

California’s state funded program for sexually violent predators costs taxpayers $4,000 a month in rent in Jacumba Hot Springs

A state funded program for sexually violent predators is paying out four times the going rate for housing in San Diego’s East County.


Huebner, B. M., Kras, K. R., & Pleggenkuhle, B. (2019)

Structural discrimination and social stigma among individuals incarcerated for sexual offenses: Reentry across the rural–urban continuum

The stigma associated with a felony conviction can impede the reentry process, and emerging research findings indicate that one's community can amplify or temper the mark of a criminal record. Researchers examining criminal stigma have focused on individuals living in urban areas, overlooking the experiences of persons outside these communities. Using qualitative data collected from a sample of men and women paroled for sexual offenses in Missouri, we contrast how social and structural stigma alter the reentry experiences for participants living in communities along the rural and urban continuum. 


Levenson, J.S. (2008)

Collateral consequences of sex offender residence restrictions

The purpose of this study was to investigate the unintended consequences of policies that restrict where sex offenders can live. In Broward County, FL, 109 sex offenders were surveyed regarding the psychosocial, economic, and practical impact of such laws on their daily lives. Results revealed that sex offenders subjected to residence restrictions reported decreased housing availability, increased homelessness and transience, and financial hardship. 


Willis, G.M., & Grace, R.C. (2009)

Assessment of community reintegration planning for sex offenders: Poor planning predicts recidivism

Poor planning for reintegrating child molesters from prison to the community is a likely risk factor for sexual recidivism. The quality of reintegration planning was retrospectively measured for groups of recidivist (n = 30) and nonrecidivist (n = 30) child molesters who were individually matched on static risk level and time since release. 


Correctional Services Canada (2002)

Circles of Support & Accountability: A Guide to Training Potential Volunteers

COSA represents an innovative response to a controversial social issue in our society.  The purpose of this manual is to assist in the training of volunteers who are willing to become a part of a Circle of Support and Accountability for warrant expiry sex offenders.


Farmer, M., McAlinden, A. M., & Maruna, S. (2015)

Understanding desistance from sexual offending: A thematic review of research findings

Although there is a substantial body of work on desistance from crime in general, comparatively little is known about desistance from sexual crime. The broad aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the research methodology and preliminary findings from a recent empirical study on desistance from sexual offending conducted by the authors.


Hanson, RK., & Harris, A.J. (2000)

Where should we intervene? Dynamic predictors of sexual offense recidivism

Effective intervention with sexual offenders requires the targeting of appropriate risk factors. In this study, information on dynamic (changeable) risk factors was collected through interviews with community supervision officers and file reviews of 208 sexual offense recidivists and 201 nonrecidivists. 


Kras, K. R., McGuirk, M., Pleggenkuhle, B., & Huebner, B. M. (2018)

Collateral Consequences of a Sex Offense Conviction


Robbers, M. L. (2009)

Lifers on the outside: Sex offenders and disintegrative shaming

This article examines the effects of labeling though informal and formal sanctions on sex offender reintegration, using qualitative analysis from a probability sample of 153 registered sex offenders in four counties in the Commonwealth of Virginia. It also provides an overview of sex offender legislation and literature. Results of the study indicate that the majority of respondents experienced negative treatment because of their status as a sex offender. 


Thornton, D., & D’Orazio, D. M. (2016)

Advancing the Evolution of Sexual Offender Risk Assessment: The Relevance of Psychological Risk Factors

This chapter explores the nature and role of psychological factors in assessing the risk presented by sexual offenders. It is argued that it is incumbent upon those tasked with assessing risk to conduct a comprehensive assessment of psychological factors as an essential aspect of effective sexual offender risk assessment. Not only do instruments that provide comprehensive assessment of psychological risk factors afford a similar level of predictive accuracy compared with that afforded by traditional static actuarial instruments, but the combination of static and psychological risk factors leads to even better prediction than either alone.


Fresno Economic Development Presentation

This is a presentation on Economic Development in Fresno, CA which also examines some of the challenges and inequities facing the city. Many of these challenges also affect and fuel the incarceration rate in the community. 


VORP Research

Community Justice Conferencing Program Evaluation of VORP​

Restorative Justice Research

Coming Soon!

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